Gandong Cai and Mingjie Cai

2020 - 2021




This part is a SIMPLE VERSION of the research work we did for the Guangdong Landscape Architecture journal. To see the full essays, please check the Guangdong Landscape Architecture journal. Full text in English will be published later in the form of a collection.

Ongoing Interview Series:

Charles Waldheim (2020 Oct Volume)


Gareth Doherty (2020 Dec Volume)


Bradley Cantrell (2021 Feb Volume)

Sergio Lopez-Pineiro (2021 June Volume)





From Planetarization to Locality: a Research Plan of Landscape Architecture Trends Based on the Klein Group Diagram

Abstract: Resonating with the significant improvement of observing and perceiving the world, the scale of design and research is enlarged to simultaneously engage the topics of planetarization and locality, from which lots of current theoretical trends derive. This article proposes a research plan for an organizational and systematic study of the new landscape architecture ideas, based on and developed from the Klein Group Diagram, and briefly introduces four important landscape architecture theory trends, including landscape theories on planetary urbanization, landscape narrative from a new geographic perspective, local-issue-driven landscape research, and intuition-oriented landscape exploration.

Keywords: Landscape theory; Klein group diagram; Planetary urbanization; Locality; Art-based-research

1. Scalar Expansion of Landscape Research and Practice

2. New Theory Model based on the Klein Group Diagram

3. Current Landscape Theories in the US

3.1 Landscape Theories on Planetary Urbanization

3.2 Landscape Narrative from A New Geographic Perspective

3.3 Local-issue-driven Landscape Research

3.4 Intuition-oriented Landscape Exploration

4. A Long-term Plan for Landscape Theories Study




Planetary Urbanization: New Theoretical Ground for Landscape Architecture

Abstract: As an urban theory built on the criticism of city/non-city duality, Planetary Urbanization advocates for the study of non-city territories and proposes operational landscape in a global scale, demonstrating its close relationship with the discipline of landscape architecture. New theoretical trends stem from Planetary Urbanization, including planetary ecology, planetary architecture and planetary infrastructure, provide new manifestation and manipulation methods for the education and practice of landscape architecture, as well as motivate collaboration and integration between multiple disciplines. With its strong characteristic of synthesis and inclusiveness, landscape architecture is taking a critical responsibility in the building of global environment under a planetary perspective.

Keywords: Planetary urbanization; Urban theory; Landscape infrastructure; Anthropocene; Urban ecology

1. Planetary Urbanization--A New Background for Landscape Architecture

2. Trans-disciplinary Development of Landscape Architecture in the Scale of Planetary

2.1 Planetary Urbanization

2.2 Planetary Architecture

2.3 Planetary Ecology

2.4 Planetary Infrastructure

3. Toward A New Theoretical Ground for Landscape Architecture